The capital of Turkey is Ankara, and the largest city in Turkey is Istanbul. The territory of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes. These provinces are organized into 7 regions for census purposes (Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean); However, they do not represent an administrative structure. Each province is divided into districts, for a total of 923 districts.
Turkey has a total area of 783,562 km2, which ranks the 37th in the World. By the lastest estimation from 2011, it has a population of 74,724,269, which ranks the 18th in the World. The official languge of Turkey is Turkish, and the currency in Turkey is Turkish Lira (TRY).
According to the data obtained from “The World Bank: World Development Indicators Database” in 2011, Turkey has the world’s 15th largest GDP-PPP and 17th largest nominal GDP. It is a founding member of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and the G-20 major economies. In recent years, Turkish economy is showing a strong, stable growth and improvement, which is benefited from industry, tourism, forgeign investment and many other factors.
Education in Turkey is governed by a national system which was established in accordance with the Atatürk Reforms after the Turkish War of Independence. By 2012 there were over 167 universities in Turkey. Universities provide either two or four years of education for undergraduate studies, while graduate programs last a minimum of two years. Some universities also ask for an additional year of English preparatory study to be completed before the start of studies, unless an exemption examination is passed. The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) coordinates basic and applied research and development, acting on proposed policies by the Turkish Academy of Sciences (TÜBA). There are more than 60 research institutes and organizations. Turkey’s R&D strengths include agriculture, forestry, health, biotechnology, nuclear technologies, minerals, materials, IT, and defense.